Mladic Convicted

Today’s conviction of Ratko Mladic on charges of genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity by a UN tribunal will come as cold comfort to those terrorized by his renegade Bosnian Serb forces. Mladic served the President of Republika Srpska, Radovan Karadžić (who was captured in 2008), as chief of staff of Bosnian Serb forces,

Mladic went underground at the end of the Yugoslav wars and was reported in poor health when finally tracked down and captured in 2011. On entering court today Mladic appeared in altogether better health, smirking at the camera – “a gesture that infuriated relatives of the victims.”

Mladic and his forces are most remembered for the 1995 Srebrenica massacre of about 8,000 men and boys, but the “Butcher of Bosnia” also terrorized the capital Sarajevo, where the 1992 – 1996 siege killed about 14,000 more people, including 5,434 civilians.

Here are photos from Sarajevo in November, 1997.

The Bosnian parliament building, top, and detail below.

Bullet-ridden tram stop.

Danger! Sniper!

The SFOR, or Stabilization Force, patrols the main street.

The flower market, where a mortar shell killed 66 in 1994.

I think this photo sums up the term “abject misery.”
A Sarajevo tram crosses in front of the rubble of a shelled-out building.

 

KNEW That Sounded Familiar

Something in President Trump’s inaugural “American carnage” speech, set off alarms in my memory, and I’ve just realized what it was. Mr. Trump instructed “all Americans,” with rhetorical flourishes about “every city near and far, small and large” and so forth, to hear his words:

“You will never be ignored again.”

 
My gratitude to Peter Maass, writing on intercept.com. Mr. Maass reported from the Balkan wars of the 1990s, and his article reminded me that a young and entirely colorless Serbian fonctionnaire named Solbodan Milošević was assigned to speak at a rally in Yugoslavia just as the Soviet Union’s unsteadiness began to infect its near abroad, in 1987.

The rally was held at Kosovo Polje, the “Field of Blackbirds” outside Pristina in Kosovo, the site of a battle between Serb in Turk in 1389 that ended in the utter defeat and collapse of Serbia. Milošević, a Belgrade politician, drew a crowd of Serbs in majority Albanian Kosovo. Predictably, the crowd grew restless and hurled stones. Police applied force. These two events may have happened in either order.

Milošević responded to the crowd, “You will not be beaten.” His words were heard by the minority Serbs, variously translated, as generally “No one will ever dare beat you (Serbs) again!” Serbian nationalism was off and running and President Ivan Stambolić, whom the gray apparatchik Milošević replaced in short order, called that day “the end of Yugoslavia.”

Perhaps Milošević was as surprised as anyone at his newfound power. Not to suggest any present day parallel.

For the record, the Milošević regime didn’t work out all that well. Many died, war swept the land and Milošević himself died in prison.

Here’s a little something I brought back from a visit to Slobodan Milošević’s Belgrade in 1997, before he decided to surrender instead of shoot himself dead, but after he’d had time to enact his economic policies:

500billiondinarssmall
A 500 billion dinar note.